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経済問題の見解比較:Comparing Views on Economic Issues [Report]

経済問題の見解比較:Comparing Views on Economic Issues

A COMPARISON OF VIEWS ON ECONOMIC ISSUES
経済問題に関する経済学者、教育者、ジャーナリストの見解比較

Chapter 6: “A Comparison of the Views of Economists, Economic Educators, Teachers and Journalists on Economic Issues” by William Becker, William B. Walstad, and Michael Watts (pp. 65-88)
in William B. Walstad, ed., “An International Perspective on Economic Education,” Kluwer, 1994
http://www.jstor.org/pss/1182987

E=Economists, T=Teachers, J=Jounalists; Generally Agree (Disagree)
E=経済学者、T=経済学教員、J=ジャーナリスト、同意の%(不同意の%)

1. Tariffs and import quotas usually reduce general economic welfare
(関税と輸入割当ては、通常は経済厚生水準を低下させる)
E 71.3% (6.5%), T 65.5% (14.1%), J 54.8% (12.7%)

2. A large federal budget deficit has an adverse effect on the economy
(巨額の財政赤字は、経済に悪影響を及ぼす)
E 35.1% (15.7%), T 61.0% (7.3%), J 73.6% (4.6%)

3. The money supply is a more important target than interest rates for monetary policy
(金融政策の目標としては、貨幣供給のほうが利子率よりも重要である)
E 34.3% (40.1%), T 40.1% (29.4%), J 24.6% (34.7%)

4. Flexible and floating exchange rates offer an effective international monetary arrangement.
(固定レートではなく、伸縮的なフロート制の為替レートは、効果的な国際金融制度たりうる)
E 56.0% (8.4%), T 61.6% (5.1%), J 52.2% (5.2%)

5. As the USSR moves toward a market economy, a rapid and total reform would result in a better outcome than a slow transition.
(ソ連邦が市場経済に移行する際、急速かつ全面的改革のほうが、時間をかけた移行よりも望ましい結果をもたらす)
E 27.2% (40.1%), T 19.8% (50.9%), J 22.8% (44.3%)

6. Fiscal policy (e.g., tax cuts and/or expenditure increases) has a significant simulative impact on a less than fully-employed economy.
(減税や財政支出増加のような財政政策は、失業を抱えた経済に対して景気を刺激する大きな効果を持つ)
E 59.3% (9.1%), T 51.4% (14.1%), J 35.3% (’17.4%)

7. The distribution of income in the U.S. should be more equal.
(米国では、所得分配をもっと平等にすべきである)
E 48.5% (26.7%), T 35.6% (35.6%), J 35.0% (33.1%)

8. Antitrust laws should be enforced vigorously to reduce monopoly power from its current level.
(独占禁止法を厳格に適用して、独占的企業の力を現在の水準よりも弱めるべきである)
E 34.9% (27.6%), T 44.6% (17.0%), J 42.4% (21.4%)

9. Inflation is primarily a monetary phenomenon.
(インフレは主として貨幣的現象である)
E 39.7% (28.5%), T 35.0% (29.9%), J 18.5% (50.7%)

10. The government should restructure the welfare system along lines of a “negative income tax.”
(政府は社会福祉制度を改革し、「逆所得税」のような簡素な補助金制度に移行すべきである)
E 44.4% (19.0%), T 29.4% (33.3%), J 13.9% (46.0%)

11. Wage-price controls are a useful policy option in the control of inflation.
(賃金・価格統制は、インフレの制御に役立つ政策オプションである)
E 8.4% (73.9%), T 5.7% (84.8%), J 7.6% (71.9%)

12. A ceiling on rents reduces the quantity and quality of housing available.
(家賃の統制は供給される賃貸住宅の量と質を低下させる)
E 76.3% (6.5%), T 72.3% (6.2%), J 51.3% (20.0%)

13. The Federal Reserve System should increase the money supply at a fixed rate.
(連邦準備制度は、貨幣供給を常に一定の率で増加させる政策をとるべき)
E 13.4% (54.1%), T 10.2% (67.2%) J 5.5% (62.9%)

14. The level of government spending relative to GNP should be reduced.
(GNPに対して政府支出のレベルを引き下げるべき)
E 35.6% (44.6%), T 49.7% (22.0%), J 58.9% (15.1%)

15. The Federal Reserve System has the capacity to achieve a constant rate of growth of the money supply if it so desired.
(連邦準備制度は、もしそれが望ましいならば、貨幣供給を一定率で増加させる能力を持っている)
E 25.4% (36.6%), T 38.4% (26.0%), J 22.8% (37.3%)

16. Economic evidence suggests there are too many resources in American agriculture.
(米国の農業に対しては過度の資源が向けられているという経済的な証拠がある)
E 48.7% (21.3%), T 20.9% (54.2%), J 14.2% (57.1%)

17. Reducing the regulatory power of the Environmental Protection Agency would improve the efficiency of the U.S. economy.
(環境保護庁による規制の力を弱めることは、米国経済の効率性を高めるであろう)
E 10.6% (62.3%), T 11.9% (60.5%), J 12.4% (64.7%)

18. If the federal budget is to be balanced, it should be done over the business cycle rather than yearly.
(連邦予算を均衡させるとすれば、それは毎年ごとよりも、景気循環の期間を通じて図られるべきである)
E 60.1% (13.4%), T 42.4% (32.8%), J 26.1% (35.7%)

19. The cause of the rise in gasoline prices that occurred in the wake of the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait is the monopoly power of the large oil companies.
(イラクのクウェート侵攻の際に起こったガソリン価格上昇は、巨大石油会社の独占力が原因であった)
E 11.4% ‘(67.5%), T 40.7% (36.7%), J 30.8% (47.6%)

20. In the short run, a reduction in unemployment causes the inflation rate to increase.
(短期的には、失業率の低下はインフレ率の上昇を導く)
E 17.7% (39.4%), T 33.3% (35.6%), 20.2% (40.6%)

21. There is a natural rate of unemployment to which the economy tends in the long run.
(長期的に経済がそこに向かう自然失業率というものが存在する)
E 34.3% (30.8%), T 66.1% (10.7%), J 44.3% (17.3%)

22. “Consumer protection” laws generally reduce economic efficiency.
(「消費者保護」のために法律は、一般的に経済の効率性を低下させる)
E 18.3% (55.8%), T 14.1% (61.0%), J 12.7% (62.3%)

23. In the movement from a non-market economy (e.g., Poland) it is important that the ownership of productive resources be privatized at the onset.
(非市場経済から市場経済への移行においては、最初に生産的な資源の所有権を民間に移すことが重要である)
E 35.1% (23.7%), T 33.9% (14.1%), J 34.2% (16.0%)

24. A large balance of trade deficit has an adverse effect on the economy
(巨額な貿易赤字は、経済にマイナスの影響を及ぼす)
E 26.3% (33.8%), T 56.5% (11.9%), J 58.6% (10.4%)

25. Lower marginal income tax rates reduces leisure and increase work effort.
(所得税の限界税率の引き下げは、余暇を減らし、労働意欲を増加させる)
E 22.6% (43.8%), T 21.5% (50.9%), J 8.4% (60.6%)

26. The trade deficit is primarily a consequence of the inability of U.S. firms to compete.
(貿易赤字は、主として米国企業の競争力が低い結果として起こる)
E 18.1% (51.5%), T 35.6% (29.4%), J 25.2% (35.6%)

27. Reducing the tax rate on income from capital gains would encourage investment and promote economic growth.
(キャピタルゲインに対する所得税率の引き下げは、投資を刺激し、経済成長を促進するであろう)
E 21.1% (49.8%), T 44.1% (22.0%), J 40.0% (25.3%)

28. The U.S. government should retaliate against dumping and subsidies in international trade
(米国政府は、国際貿易におけるダンピングや輸出補助金に対して報復措置をとるべきである)
E 15.1% (47.6%), T 30.5% (31.1%), J 32.1% (23.2%)
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